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Lithium
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Last Updated
19 Feb 2021
Minimum Order
1 Kilogram
Category
Chemicals

Specification of Lithium

Uses:

Ceramics and glass

Lithium oxide is widely used as a flux for silica processing, decreases the melting point and viscosity of materials and causes glazes with improved physical properties including a low coefficient of thermal expansion. This is one of the largest uses for lithium compounds in the world. Glaze containing lithium oxide is used for oven equipment. Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is commonly used in this application because it turns into an oxide upon heating.

Electrical and electronics

In the late 20th century, lithium became an important component of lithium electrolytes and electrodes, because of its high electrode potential. It has a high charge-to-weight and power-to-weight ratio, due to its low atomic mass. Lithium ion batteries can generate about 3 volts per cell, compared to 2.1 volts from lead acid batteries or 1.5 volts from zinc-carbon batteries. Lithium ion batteries, which are rechargeable and have a high energy density, should not be confused with lithium batteries, which are single-use (primary cell) batteries with lithium or their compounds as anodes. Other rechargeable batteries that use lithium include lithium ion polymer batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries, and nanowire batteries.

Lithium soap or lithium grease

Main article: Lithium soap

The third common use is grease. Lithium hydroxide is a strong base and, when heated with fat, produces a soap made from lithium stearate. Lithium soap has the ability to thicken oil, and is used to make multipurpose high temperature lubricating greases.

Metallurgy

Lithium (eg as lithium carbonate) is used as a continuous casting additive to increase fluidity, a use which accounts for 5% of global lithium use (2016). Lithium compounds are also used as additives (fluxes) for cast sand [en] for casting iron to reduce breakdown.


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